Page 13 has explained results of US railroad history, regarding track layout


Importing common tilting trains from Europe is not the best solution, when looking at curvy track in the USA. The majority of European mainline trains will not pass through existing curves without modifications. Trains developed for European 100 mph secondary lines might pass the curves, and the Talgo does as well, but nearly all of these trains will cut out the tilting, if curves get as tight as on many lines in the USA.

JR Hokkaido type 283 DMU on a grade crossing.
A location-based system, as used by JR Hokkaido, doesn't stop working in tighter curvature than this.

Old mainlines in Japan are far more comparable to US conditions, but of narrow gauge. The Japanese railroads do not use sensor-based tilting systems, as most of the European manufacturers. The first generation of Japanese tilting trains featured "natural" tilt by gravity, the second generation uses location-based systems. Information about the track is stored in the train, in a database, and information about the current location is fed into the train by external source.

On a route like Sapporo - Kushiro, a steep mountain route with very tight curvature, heavy snowfall, and a soft roadbed, JR Hokkaido achieves the same average speed, and higher reliability, as the fastest Amtrak trains on straight track in the deserts of the western USA.

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